Theory of Formation and Legal Definition of "Social Relations" as the Basis of the Sociological Legal Concept of Stanislav Dnistrianskyi (1870–1935)
At the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century, the emergence of new theoretical legal justifications for the emergence of "law" and "state" was unique for the development of world legal science. The legal figures of Ukrainian legal science – Stanislav Dnistrianskyi and Yevhen Erlikh redefined the civilization life of mankind and offered a new understanding of law and state in their own way in their scientific writings. Thus, the social, natural, economic, legal and cultural notion of "need", "custom" and "customary right" was the basis of life of all "social relations", as well as the state, in the legal ideas of Stanislav Dnistrianskyi.
In the writings of Dnistryanskyi , "Human and His Needs in the Legal System" (“Cholovik i Yeho Potreby v Pravnii Systemi”) (1900), "The Customary Law and Social Relations" (“Zvychaieve Pravo — a Sotsiialni Zviazky”) (1902) laid down the basic principles of his own theory of "social relations" with the historical and legal analysis of the emergence of the needs of people, the notion of property, good, wealth, welfare and poverty. In these writings, Dnistryanskyi, concluded that the rules of customary law have a decisive role in the legal relations of people, examined the regularities of functioning and coexistence of various social groups in society at the conceptual level, considering that society was the actual source of law almost the first time in the world. Dnistryanskyi scientifically proved that the customary law has historical, cultural, ethnographic, philosophical and sociological fundamentals. Thus, in his opinion, the first social norms are custom, tradition, rite, and then there is a customary law, law and other legal norms in society. Given the natural, social and economic nature of human and social needs, Dnistryanskyi proves the same nature of the fundamentals of law by analogy. In his opinion, it is from the needs that there are the first socio-ethical norms, from which the legal norms of various social groups, as well as the state, subsequently arise.
Dnistryanskyi widely used both historical-genetic and socio-economic methods during the formation of his own sociological and legal concept of law and state. S. Dnistryanskyi proceeded from the following in creating his own, original, holistic, synthetic natural, economic and social concept of law: – human needs are the fundamentals of law; usually, the authority of social formation and the will of members of various social groups define the limits of law; the needs acting as natural and economic categories affect the content of law and define the human rights and freedoms; Dnistryanskyi distinguishes the principle of interdependence and mutual responsibility of people among themselves using the human needs. Certain benefits serve as means of meeting people needs; the law is affected by natural, social and economic factors; the law arises on the basis of social and ethical norms of certain social groups that express their confidence in these norms and give their sanction to them (in the state, this sanction is based on an organized administrative apparatus, which uses physical coercion among other things).
Consequently, Stanislav Dnistrianskyi offered a holistic sociological legal conception of the evolution of law in "social relations" in his writings, which he understood both as social groups (family, race, tribe, people, state, etc.) and relations between various social groups
Keywords: social group; social relations; custom; customary law; people; state.
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